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Citing Resources: APA

SOURCE: American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.).

Only the first word, the first word after a colon, and all proper nouns of book titles are capitalised in book titles.

1 Book with single author, no edition
(APA, 2010, p. 202)

General reference form for books:
Author, A. A. (Year). Title of work. Publisher.

Kerins, A. (2010). 
An adventure in service-learning: Developing knowledge, values
            and responsibility
. Gower.

NOTE: APA 7th ed. no longer required place of publication.

​2 Book with single author, 
edition stated

(APA, 2010, pp. 203-205)
Berman, S. (2006). Service learning : A guide to planning, implementing, and
            assessing student projects
 (2nd ed.). Corwin Press.
(APA, 2010, p. 202)

McDonald, T., & ProQuest. (2011). Social responsibility and sustainability:
            Multidisciplinary perspectives through service learning.
 Website name.

NOTE: Provide URL in place of publication details for an e-book. Embed URL in the reference.

Edited Book with DOI
(APA, 2010, p. 202)

​Idowu, S.O. & Louche, C. (Eds.). (2011). Theory and practice of corporate social
            responsibility. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. 
Website name.
NOTE: A Direct Object Identifer (DOI) is a unique identification number for a
           published work. Provide DOI at the end of the reference when available.

This category includes books and reference books with chapter entries.

Notes (APA, 2010, p. 203):

  • Alphabetise books with no author or editor by the first significant word in the title.
  • Place information about editions, volume numbers, and page numbers (such as revised edition, volume number or chapter page range) in parentheses following the book title: (Rev. ed.) or (Vol. xx, pp. xxx-xxx).
  • Only the first word, the first word after a colon, and all proper nouns of book titles are capitalised.
  • For books or chapters available only online, the electronic retrieval statement (URL or DOI) takes the place of publisher location and name (see samples 6-7).
Chapter with author byline in an edited book
(APA, 2010, p. 202)
General reference form for book chapter:
Author, A. A. & Author, B. B. (Year). Title of chapter or entry. In A. Editor, B.
            Editor, & C. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pp. xxx-xxx). Publisher.
Smith, F. M., & Jones, W. (2004). The college student. In C. Wood, & M. Meyer (Eds.),
            Cross-cultural education (pp. 75−105). MacMillan.
Chapter with author byline in an edited e-book 
(APA, 2010, p. 202)

Baranowski, T., Perry, C. L., & Parcel, G. S. (2002). How individuals, environments, and
            health behavior interact. In Glanz, K., Rimer, B. & Viswanath, K. (Eds.), Health
            behavior and health education: Theory, research, and practice (5th ed., pp. 
Website name. https://www.xxxxxxxxxxx

Chapter with author byline in an edited serial e-book, with DOI
(APA, 2010, p. 204)
Strong, E. K. Jr., & Uhrbrock, R. S. (1923). Bibliography on job analysis. In L. Outhwaite
            (Series Ed.), Personnel Research Series: Vol. 1. Job analysis and the curriculum
            (pp. 140-146). Website name.

NOTE: If DOI is assigned, give the DOI in the reference. No URL or database name is needed.
Entry in reference work with byline
(APA, 2010, p. 202)
Davidson, T. (2002). Common cold. In J. L. Longe (Ed.), The Gale encyclopedia 
            of medicine (2nd ed., Vol. 2, pp. 869−872). Gale Group.
Entry in reference work with no byline (web page format)
(APA, 2010, p. 202)

Cell division. (2008). In E. Martin & R. Hine (Eds.) Dictionary of biology. Website name

NOTE: Embed URLs in the reference.


Electronic version of republished book

(APA, 2010, p. 203)

Freud, S. (1953). The method of interpreting dreams: An analysis of a specimen dream. In J.
           Strachey (Ed. & Trans.), The standard edition of the complete psychological works of
           Sigmund Freud (Vol. 4, pp. 96-121). Website name. https:\\
           (Original work published 1900) 

NOTE: Embed URLs in the reference.


Electronic version of book chapter in a volume in a series

(APA, 2010, p. 204)

Strong, E. K., Jr., & Uhrbrock, R. S. (1923). Bibliography on job analysis. In L. Outhwaite (Series
            Ed.), Personnel Research Series: Vol. 1 Job analysis and the curriculum
            (pp. 140-146). Website name.

NOTE: In regularly published series with subtitles that change regularly, the series title is
uppercase and the subtitle is lowercase, as in a book title.


Entry in an online reference work

(APA, 2010, p. 205)

Graham, G. (2005). Behaviorism. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.), The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy (Fall
              2007 ed.). Website name.

NOTE: Embed URLs in the reference.


Entry in an online reference work, no author or editor

(APA, 2010, p. 205)

Heuristic. (n.d.). In Merriam-Webster's online dictionary (11th ed.). Website name. https://www.m-

NOTE: Embed URLs in the reference.

Periodicals include items published on a regular basis such as journals, magazines, newspapers, and newsletters. 

General reference form: 

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, x(x), pp-pp.

Notes (APA, 2010, p. 198):

  • Only the first word, the first word after a colon, and all proper nouns of article titles are capitalised. But all major words in journal titles are capitalised.
  • Include the digital object identifier (DOI) in the reference if one is assigned. The DOI functions as the specific publication ID for the material.
  • If no DOI is assigned to an online material, include the page URL for the journal, newsletter, or magazine in the reference using the format: https://www.xxxxxxxxxx. 
  • Give the issue number in parentheses immediately after the volume number.
Journal article with DOI
(APA, 2010, p. 198)
General reference form for Journal article:
Author, A. A., Author, B. B. & Author, C.C. (Year). Title of article. Title of           
 xx, pp-pp.

Herbst-Damm, K. L. & Kulik, J. A. (2005). Volunteer support, marital status,
            and the
 survival times of terminally ill patients. Health Psychology, 24, 225-229. 
Journal article with DOI, more than 7 authors
(APA, 2010, p. 198)
Gilbert, D. G., McClernon, J. F., Rabinovich, N. E., Sugai, C., Plath, L. C., Asgaard, G.,      
            ...Botros, N. (2004). Effects of quitting smoking on EEG activation and              
            attention last for more than 31 days and are more severe with stress,              
            dependence, DRD2 A1 allele, and depressive traits. Nicotine and Tobacco       
, 6, 249-267.
​3 ​Journal article without DOI
(APA, 2010, p. 199)
​Brown, C., & Austin, D. (2009). Fatty acids, breastfeeding and autism spectrum
            disorder. E-journal of Applied Psychology, 5(1), 49−52. http://ojs/

Light, M. A., & Light, I. H. (2008). The geographic expansion of Mexican immigration   
            in the United States and its implication for local law enforcement. Law            
            Enforcement Executive Forum Journal, 8
(1), 73-82.

NOTE: Provide page numbers if journal is paginated. If there is no DOI assigned and 
            the reference was retrieved online, provide the URL of the journal home 
            page. No retrieval date is needed. 
            Italicise the journal name and volume number but not the issue number.
​4 Journal article with DOI, advance online publication
(APA, 2010, p. 199)
​Von Ledebur, S. C. (2007). Optimizing knowledge transfer by new employees in        
            companies. Knowledge Management Research and Practice. Advance online   

NOTE: Update your references close to the publication date of your work, and refer  
            to final versions of your sources if possible. 
In-press article posted in a pre-print archive
(APA, 2010, p. 200)
Briscoe, R. (in press). Egocentric spatial representation in action and perception.         
          Philosophy and Phenomenological Research.                                      

NOTE: URL is used because the article is informally published and not yet indexed on 
            a journal website. 
​6 ​Magazine article
(APA, 2010, p. 200)
Chamberlin, J., Novotnet, A., Packard, E., & Price, M. (2008, May). Enhancing worker     
            well-being: Occupational health psychologists convene to share their research
            on work, stress, and health. Monitor on Psychology, 39(5), 26-29.
​7 Online magazine article
(APA, 2010, p. 200)
Clay, R. (2008, June). Science vs. ideology: Psychologists fight back about the misuse   
            of research. Monitor on Psychology, 39(6).
​8 ​Newsletter article with no author byline
(APA, 2010, p. 200)

Six sites meet for comprehensive anti-gang initiative conference. (2006,                   
            November/December). OJJDP News @ a Glance.     

NOTE: Alphabetise works with no author by the first significant word in the title (in this case, 

           In text, use a short title (or full title if it is short) enclosed in quotation marks 
           for parenthetical citation: ("Six Sites Meet", 2006)

​9 ​Newspaper article
(APA, 2010, p. 200)

​Schwartz, J. (1993, September 30). Obesity after economic, social status. The             
            Washington Post
, pp. A1, A4.

NOTE: Precede page numbers for newspapers articles with p. or pp.

           If an article appears on discontinuous pages, give all page numbers, and separate the
           numbers with a comma (e.g., pp. B1, B5-B7).

Online newspaper article
(APA, 2010, p. 200)
Brody, J. E. (2007, December 11). Mental reserves keep brain agile. The New York                     
​11 ​Special issue or section in a journal
(APA, 2010, p. 201)

Haney, C., & Weiner, R. L. (Eds.). (2004). Capital punishment in the United States          
            [Special issue]. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 10(4). 

Greenfield, P., & Yan, Z. (Eds.). (2006). Children, adolescents, and the Internet [Special
            section]. Developmental Psychology, 42, 391-394.               

NOTE: To cite an entire issue or special section of a journal, give the editors of the issue and
            the title of the issue.

            If issue has no editor, move the issue title to the author position, before the  
            year of publication, and end the title with a period. 
Alphabetise the reference entry by
            the first significant word in the title. In text, use a shortened title enclosed in quotation
            marks for parenthetical citation, i.e. ("Capital Punishment", 2004).

            Provide the page ranges for special sections.

​12 Editorial without signature
(APA, 2010, p. 201)
Editorial: "What is a disaster" and why does this question matter? [Editorial]. (2006).    
           Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, 14, 1-2.


The Internet offers a lot of platforms to publish and join online discussions. 

General format for citing online resources: 

Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of post [Description of form]. Website name. https://www.xxxxxx

Notes (APA, 2010, p. 215):

  • Give the author's full surname follow by his initials. 
  • If only a screen name is available, use the screen name.
  • Provide the exact date of posting, if possible. 
  • Embed URLs in the reference.
  • A website is a collection of one or more webpages. Use regular font for titles of webpages but use italics for titles of websites and web documents.
  • The website name is also included, unless it’s the same as the author.
Webpage on website
with corporate  author, no date
General reference form for web page:
Author, A. A. (Date). Title of web page. Website name. https://www.xxxxxx

The College of William & Mary. (n.d.). The William & Mary mission statement.            

NOTE: It is permissible to leave live links in the reference list.
           If there is no publication date, write n.d. (no date). 
           In text, write the paragraph number (par. #) instead of page number.
Webpage on website,
no author
All 33 Chile miners freed in flawless rescue. (2010, October 13). NBC News.               
​3 Document on a website with corporate author Singapore Ministry of Health. (n.d.). List of infectious diseases.

Blog post

(APA, 2010, p. 215)

PZ Myers. (2007, January 22). The unfortunate prerequisites and consequences
           of partitioning your mind [Web log post]. Website name.

Audiovisual media include motion pictures; audio or television broadcasts (including podcasts); and static objects such as maps, artwork, or photos.

For a motion picture, use the following format:

Producer, A. A. (Producer), & Director, B. B. (Director). (Year). Title of motion picture [Motion picture]. Studio


For a music recording, use the following format:

Writer, A. (Copyright Year). Title of song [Recorded by B.B. Artist if different from writer]. On Title of album [Medium of recording: CD, record, cassette, etc.] Label (Date of recording if different from song copyright date)


NOTES (APA, 2010, p. 209)

  • List the primary contributors in the author position and use parentheses to identify their contribution. 
  • For an episode from a TV or radio series, use the same format as for a chapter in a book, but list the scriptwriter and director in the author position and the producer in the editor position.

Motion Picture [DVD Format]

(APA, 2010, p. 209)

Bill, B., & Rosebush, B. (Producers) & Ortega, K. (Director). (2009). High 
           school musical 3
[Motion picture]. Walt Disney Home Entertainment. 

Movie Recording [Web Format]

(APA, 2010, p. 209)

Bill, B., & Rosebush, B. (Producers) & Ortega, K. (Director). (2009). High 
          school musical 3
[Motion picture]. 


Music Recording

(APA, 2010, p. 210)

Lang, K.D. (2008). Shadow and the frame. On Watershed [CD]. Nonesuch Records.

NOTE:  In-text citations, include side and band or track numbers: "Shadow and the Frame" (Lang, 2008, track 10). 

​4 Podcast​
(APA, 2010, p. 210)
​Van Nuys, D. (Producer). (2007, December 19). Shrink rap radio [Audio podcast].        
5 YouTube Video​ Singapore Workforce Development Agency. (2011). Singapore human capital 
         summit - Knowledge showcase [Video File]. 

Map retrieved online

(APA, 2010, p. 210)

Lewis County Geographic Information Services (Cartographer). (2002). Population density, 2000
          U.S. Census [Demographic map].

The format for acknowledging photos published online is below

Copyright holder/Author. (Year). Title of photo [description of material].

From Web (with DOI and CC license)
Learn about CC licenses here, and how to attribute works with CC licenses here

Copyright holder/Author (usually company name for company products). (Year, Month Day of publication).
          Title of photo [Description of material]. Website name.

CRT Building Products. (n.d.). Cathode Ray Tube [Photograph]. Website name.

NOTE: n.d. stands for “no date” (where exact publication date of the material is unknown)

BruceBlaus. (2014). Implantable cardioverter defibrillator [Photograph]. WikiJournal of 
         Medicine, 1
(2), 11.  Licensed under 
From Web (without DOI)
(APA, 2010, p. 214-215)

Painter, J. (2018, January 26). Ship in the mist [Photograph]. Flickr.

​3 From Database ​Microsoft. (n.d.). School building [Photograph]. Retrieved from Clipart database
​4 Self-citation for Images


If you are the photographer, cite in-text only. Do not include the citation in the Reference list as the reader cannot cross-check the source.

Under the photograph, write Figure and a number in italics. Number figures according to the order they appear in the text/Course Manual. 

Include a detailed caption under the photograph that explains it meaning and context, such as author name, date, photograph title, and location. 

Figure 1. Tsang, P.S. (2018). Tube structural system [Photograph]. Singapore.

Self –citation for Diagrams/Illustrations

Refer to notes in Sample 4. 

Figure 1. Yeo, C.L. (2018). Aeroplane [Hand-drawn image]. Singapore.

6 ​Adaptation of Images from Internet

Adapted from "Title of image", by Author (First name initial, Surname), Year.
              URL. Copyright information (if given)

Adapted from “Aeroplane”, by J. Dhillon, 2014. Flickr.
              Licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 2.

Technical and research reports are part of gray literature. They may or may not be peer reviewed. Format references to research reports are the same for books. 

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of work (Report No. xxx). Publisher

Note (APA, 2010, p. 205):

  • If the issuing organisation assigned a number (e.g. report number, contract number, monograph number) to the report, give that number in parentheses immediately after the title. 
Corporate author, government report

(APA, 2010, p. 205)

US Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Heart,
            Lung, and Blood Institute. (2003). Managing asthma: A guide for schools (NIH     
            Publication No. 02-2650).                   
Corporate author, task force report filed online
(APA, 2010, p. 206)
American Psychological Association, Task Force on the Sexualization of Girls. (2007). Report of                the APA Task Force on the Sexualization of Girls.

Authored report, from nongovernmental organisation

(APA, 2010, p. 206)

Kessy, S. S. A., & Urio, F. M. (2006). The contribution of microfinance institutions to poverty
           reduction in Tanzania
(Research Report No. 06.3). Research on Poverty

Report from institutional archive

(APA, 2010, p. 206)

McDaniel, J. E., & Miskel, C. G. (2002). The effect of groups and individuals on national
            decisionmaking: Influence and domination in the reading policymaking environment 

            (CIERA Report 3-025). University of Michigan, Center for Improvement
            of Early Reading Achievement.

Issue brief

(APA, 2010, p. 206)

Employee Benefit Research Institute. (1992, February). Sources of health insurance and
           characteristics of the uninsured
(Issue Brief No. 123). Author.

This category includes raw data and tools that aid persons in performing tasks such as data analysis and measurement. In text, give the proper name of the software, along with the version number. Do provide reference entries for specialised software or computer programmes with limited distribution. For standard softwares such as MS Word, Excel, Adobe Photoshop, or even SPSS, no reference entries are needed.

Notes (APA, 2010, p. 210-211)

General format: 

Rightsholder, A. A. (Year). Title of programme (Version number) [Description of form]. Name of producer


Rightsholder, A. A. (Year). Title of programme [Description of form]. Website name. http://xxxxxxxxxxxxxx

  • If an individual has proprietary rights to the software, name him or her as the author; otherwise, treat such references as unauthored works.
  • In parentheses immediately after the title, identify the version number, if any.
  • In brackets immediately after the title or version number, identify the source as a computer programme, language, software, and so forth. Do not use a period between the title and the bracketed material. 

Data Set

(APA, 2010, p. 211)

Pew Hispanic Center. (2004). Changing channels and crisscrossing cultures: A survey of
          Latinos on the news media
[Data file and code book].


Measurement Instrument

(APA, 2010, p. 211)

Friedlanderm, M. L., Escudero, V. & Heatherington, L. (2002). E-SOFTA: System for
          observing family therapy alliances [Software and training videos]. Unpublished


(APA, 2010, p. 211)

Comprehensive Meta-Analysis (Version 2) [Computer software]. Biostat.

​4 Apparatus
(APA, 2010, p. 211)
Eyelink II [Apparatus and software]. (2004). SR Research.

Other Kinds of Information Sources 

Corporate author, government report
(APA, 2010, p. 205)
General reference form for technical and research reports: 
Author, A. A. (Year). Title of work (Report No. xxx). Publisher.

US Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health,            
           National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. (2003). Managing asthma: A guide  
           for schools 
(NIH Publication No. 02-2650).                           
Authored report from an NGO
(APA, 2010, p. 206)
Kessy, S.S.A., & Urio, F.M. (2006). The contribution of microfinance institutions to        
            Poverty reduction in Tanzania
 (Research Report No. 06.3).       
            Research on Poverty Alleviation.
​​3 ​Report from institutional archive
(APA, 2010, p. 206)
​McDaniel, J. E., & Miskel, C. G. (2002). The effect of groups and individuals on               
           national decision making: Influence and domination in the reading                  
           policymaking environment
 (CIERA Report 3-025). University    
           of Michigan, Centre for Improvement of Early Reading Achievement.                 
Issue brief
(APA, 2010, p. 206)
Employee Benefit Research Institute. (1992, February). Sources of health insurance     
            and characteristics of the uninsured 
(Issue Brief No. 123). Author.

NOTE: Use this form for issue briefs, working papers, and other corporate               
          documents, with appropriate document number for retrieval in parentheses. 
5 ​Symposium contribution
(APA, 2010, p. 207)
​Muellbauer, J. (2007, September). Housing, credit, and consumer expenditure. In S.   
           C. Ludvigson (Chair), Housing and consumer behavior. Symposium                  
           conducted at the meeting of the Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City,            
           Jackson Hole, WY.
Conference paper
(APA, 2010, p. 207)

a. in Print Proceedings

Author of  Paper, A., & Author of Paper, B. (Year, Month date). Title of paper.
          In A. Editor, B. Editor, & C. Editor. Title of Published Proceedings. Paper
          presented at Title of Conference: Subtitle of Conference, Location (inclusive
          page numbers). Publisher.

b. from the Internet

(with DOI)

Author of  Paper, A., & Author of Paper, B. (Year, Month date). Title of paper. Paper
          presented at Title of Conference: Subtitle of Conference, Location.     

(without DOI)

Author of  Paper, A., & Author of Paper, B. (Year, Month date). Title of paper. Paper
          presented at Title of Conference: Subtitle of Conference, Location. Publisher.

c. Conference Proceedings

Editor, A., & Editor, B. (Eds.). (Year). Title of conference: Subtitle of conference,
          Location, Date.

7 ​Review of a book
(APA, 2010, p. 209)
Schatz, B. R. (2000, November 17). Learning by text or context? [Review of the book  
           The social life of information, by J. S. Brown & P. Duguid]. Science, 290,             
​8 ​Review of a video
(APA, 2010, p. 209)
​Axelman, A., & Shapiro, J. L. (2007). Does the solution warrant the problem? [Review
            of the DVD Brief therapy with adolescents, produced by the American             
            Psychological Association, 2007]. PsysCRITIQUES, 52(51).
9 Music recording
(APA, 2010, p. 210)
Iang, k. d. (2008). Shadow and the frame. On Watershed [CD]. Nonesuch Records.

NOTE: In text citation, include side and band or track numbers: 
           "Shadow and the Frame" (Iang, 2008, track 10).
Map retrieved online
(APA, 2010, p. 210)
Lewis County Geographic Information Services (Cartographer). (2002). Population     
            density, 2000 US Census [Demographic map].                    


In-text citation

Notes (APA, 2010, pp. 174-179): 

  • The in-text citation for works with three or more authors is now shortened right from the first citation. You only include the first author’s name and “et al.”. [Adapted from Streefkerk. R. (2019). APA Manual 7th edition: The most notable changes.]
  • If author's surname (corresponding to an entry in the reference list) appears in the text, year of publication should come after in round brackets.
  • Page range after 'pp.' should be indicated if a quote was lifted verbatimly from the pages.
  • The following Table was adapted from APA (2010, p. 177). 
No.  Type of citation First citation in text Subsequent citations in text Parenthetical format, first citation in text Parenthetical format, subsequent citations in text
1   Work by one author Ghemawat noted that decision-making in international strategy is much more complex because of the 'barriers created by distance' (2001). Ghemawat (2001) (Ghemawat, 2001) (Ghemawat, 2001)
2​ Work by two authors Bielby and Harrington reported that while the USA is by far the major exporter of TV programmes, countries with large internal markets such as Brazil, Japan, and the UK are also active exporters (2008). Bielby and Harrington (2008) (Bielby & Harrington, 2008) (Bielby & Harrington, 2008)
3 Work by three authors Emperical findings from Arnkoff, Glass, and Shapiro (2002) demonstrate that one of the moderating variables with regard to psychotherapy drop-out and outcome may also be the clients’ expectations about therapy.





In case of a work by three authors or more, the subsequent in-text entry for the same article should include only the name of the first mentioned author followed by et al.:

Arnkoff et al. (2002) integrated concepts to identify critical destination stakeholders in tourism development.


(Arnkoff, 2002)

 (Arnkoff et. al, 2002)
​4 Work by four authors The operation of availability heuristics (existing and recent knowledge) and representativeness heuristics (tried routines) seem to figure in some tourists’ decisions and play a role in the emotional input into choices, according to De Martino, Kumaran, Seymour, and Dolan (2006). De Martino et al. (2006) (De Martino et al. 2006) (De Martino et al. 2006)
​5 Work by five authors Freeman, Harrison, Wicks, Parmar, and Colle reported concepts to identify critical destination stakeholders in tourism development (2010). Freeman et al. (2010) (Freeman et al., 2010) (Freeman et al., 2010)
6 Work by six or more authors Large retail multinationals such as Ikea of Sweden also source extensively from China (Coe et al., 2007). Coe et al. (2007) (Coe et al., 2007) (Coe et al., 2007)
​7 Work by a group (with abbreviations) World Trade Organisation reported that between 1950 and 2006, world trade grew 27-fold in volume terms, three times faster than world output growth (WTO, 2007). WTO (2007) (World Trade Organisation [WTO], 2007) (WTO, 2007)
​8 ​Work by a group (with no abbreviations) University of Pittsburgh (2005) University of Pittsburgh (2005) (University of Pittsburgh, 2005) (University of Pittsburgh, 2005)
Personal communication
(APA, 2010, p. 179)

T.K. Lutes (personal communication, April 18, 2001)
(V.-G. Nguyen, personal communication, September 28, 1998)


Include date of interview in parenthetical citations.

Personal communications are for in-text citations only. They should not be included in the reference list because they cannot be retrieved.


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Major changes in APA's 7th edition that were reflected in this Lib Guide were adapted from:  

Streefkerk, R. (2019, Oct 11). APA Manual 7th edition: The most notable changes.