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Citing Resources: MLA

General Note:

The author’s name or a book with a single author's name appears in last name, first name format.

The basic form for a book citation is:

Last Name, First Name. Title of Book. City of Publication, Publisher, Publication Date.

*Note: the City of Publication should only be used if the book was published before 1900, if the publisher has offices in more than one country, or if the publisher is unknown outside North America.


Edited book

NOTES: There are two types of editions in book publishing: a book that has been published more than once in different editions and a book that is prepared by someone other than the author (typically an editor).

A Subsequent Edition

Cite the book as you normally would, but add the number of the edition after the title.

Crowley, Sharon, and Debra Hawhee. Ancient Rhetorics for Contemporary
. 3rd ed., Pearson, 2004.

A Work Prepared by an Editor

Cite the book as you normally would, but add the editor after the title with the label, "Edited by"

Bronte, Charlotte. Jane Eyre. Edited by Margaret Smith, Oxford UP, 1998.

One author

Gleick, James. Chaos: Making a New Science. Penguin, 1987.

Henley, Patricia. The Hummingbird House. MacMurray, 1999.

​3 Two or three authors NOTES: When a book has multiple authors, order the authors in the same way they are presented in the book. The first given name appears in last name, first name format; subsequent author names appear in first name last name format.

Gillespie, Paula, and Neal Lerner. The Allyn and Bacon Guide to Peer Tutoring.
          Allyn and Bacon, 2000.

If there are three or more authors, list only the first author followed by the phrase et al. (Latin for "and others") in place of the subsequent authors' names. (Note that there is a period after “al” in “et al.” Also note that there is never a period after the “et” in “et al.”).

Wysocki, Anne Frances, et al. Writing New Media: Theory and Applications for
          Expanding the Teaching of Composition
. Utah State UP, 2004.

​4 More than three authors

NOTE: Use et al. for more than 3 authors.

Plag, Ingo et al. Introduction to English Linguistics. Berlin: Mouton, 2007. 

Corporate author

NOTES: A corporate author may include a commission, a committee, a government agency, or a group that does not identify individual members on the title page.

List the names of corporate authors in the place where an author’s name typically appears at the beginning of the entry.

American Allergy Association. Allergies in Children. Random House, 1998.

NOTE: When the author and publisher are the same, skip the author, and list the title first. Then, list the corporate author only as the publisher.

Fair Housing—Fair Lending. Aspen Law & Business, 1985.

6 Multivolume work

NOTES: When citing only one volume of a multivolume work, include the volume number after the work's title, or after the work's editor or translator.

Quintilian. Institutio Oratoria. Translated by H. E. Butler, vol. 2,
          Loeb-Harvard UP, 1980.

When citing more than one volume of a multivolume work, cite the total number of volumes in the work. Also, be sure in your in-text citation to provide both the volume number and page number(s). (See Citing Multivolume Works on the In-Text Citations – The Basics page, which you can access by following the appropriate link at the bottom of this page.)

Quintilian. Institutio Oratoria. Translated by H. E. Butler, Loeb-Harvard
          UP, 1980. 4 vols.

If the volume you are using has its own title, cite the book without referring to the other volumes as if it were an independent publication.

Churchill, Winston S. The Age of Revolution. Dodd, 1957.

​7 Two or more works by the same author

NOTES: List works alphabetically by title. (Remember to ignore articles like A, An, and The.) Provide the author’s name in last name, first name format for the first entry only. For each subsequent entry by the same author, use three hyphens and a period.

Palmer, William J. Dickens and New Historicism. St. Martin's, 1997.

---. The Films of the Eighties: A Social History. Southern Illinois UP, 1993.

8 Book with no author

NOTES: List by title of the book. Incorporate these entries alphabetically just as you would with works that include an author name. For example, the following entry might appear between entries of works written by Dean, Shaun and Forsythe, Jonathan.

Encyclopedia of Indiana. Somerset, 1993.

Remember that for an in-text (parenthetical) citation of a book with no author, provide the name of the work in the signal phrase and the page number in parentheses. You may also use a shortened version of the title accompanied by the page number.

For more information see the In-text Citations for Print Sources with No Known Author section of In-text Citations: The Basics.

General Notes:

  • Periodicals include magazines, newspapers, and scholarly journals. Works cited entries for periodical sources include three main elements—the author of the article, the title of the article, and information about the magazine, newspaper, or journal.
  • MLA uses the generic term “container” to refer to any print or digital venue (a website or print journal, for example) in which an essay or article may be included.

Article in a scholarly journal

NOTES: Cite the author and title of article as you normally would. Then, put the title of the journal in italics. Include the volume number (“vol.”) and issue number (“no.”) when possible, separated by commas. Finally, add the year and page numbers.

Author(s). "Title of Article." Title of Journal, Volume, Issue, Year, pages.

Bagchi, Alaknanda. "Conflicting Nationalisms: The Voice of the Subaltern in Mahasweta
          Devi's Bashai Tudu." Tulsa Studies in Women's Literature, vol. 15, no. 1, 1996, pp.

Duvall, John N. "The (Super)Marketplace of Images: Television as Unmediated
         Mediation in DeLillo's White Noise." Arizona Quarterly, vol. 50, no. 3, 1994, pp.

2 Article in a special issue of a scholarly journal

NOTES: Cite the name of the special issue in the entry’s title space, in italics. Add the descriptor “special issue of” and include the name of the journal, also in italics, followed by the rest of the information required for a standard scholarly journal citation.

Web entries should follow a similar format, and should include a URL, DOI, or permalink.

Burgess, Anthony. "Politics in the Novels of Graham Greene." Literature and Society, special
           issue of Journal of Contemporary History, vol. 2, no. 2, 1967, pp. 93-99.

Case, Sue-Ellen. “Eve's Apple, or Women's Narrative Bytes.” Technocriticism and Hypernarrative,
          special issue of Modern Fiction Studies, vol. 43, no. 3, 1997, pp. 631-50. Project Muse,

​3 Article in a newspaper

NOTES: Cite a newspaper article as you would a magazine article, but note the different pagination in most newspapers. If there is more than one edition available for that date (as in an early and late edition of a newspaper), identify the edition after the newspaper title.

Brubaker, Bill. "New Health Center Targets County's Uninsured Patients." Washington
, 24 May 2007, p. LZ01.

Krugman, Andrew. "Fear of Eating." New York Times, late ed., 21 May 2007, p. A1.

4 Article in a magazine

NOTES: Cite by listing the article's author, putting the title of the article in quotations marks, and italicizing the periodical title. Follow with the date of publication. Remember to abbreviate the month. The basic format is as follows:

Author(s). "Title of Article." Title of Periodical, Day Month Year, pages.

Poniewozik, James. "TV Makes a Too-Close Call." Time, 20 Nov. 2000, pp. 70-71.

Buchman, Dana. "A Special Education." Good Housekeeping, Mar. 2006, pp. 143-48.

5 Anonymous articles

NOTES: Cite the article title first, and finish the citation as you would any other for that kind of periodical.

"Business: Global Warming's Boom Town; Tourism in Greenland." The Economist,
          26 May 2007, p. 82.

"Aging; Women Expect to Care for Aging Parents but Seldom Prepare." Women's Health
, 10 May 2007, p. 18.

6 A Review

NOTES: Include the title of the review (if available), then the phrase, “Review of” and provide the title of the work (in italics for books, plays, and films; in quotation marks for articles, poems, and short stories). Finally, provide performance and/or publication information.

Review Author. "Title of Review (if there is one)." Review of Performance Title,
          by Author/Director/Artist. Title of Periodical, Day Month Year, page.

Seitz, Matt Zoller. "Life in the Sprawling Suburbs, If You Can Really Call It Living."
          Review of Radiant City, directed by Gary Burns and Jim Brown. New York Times,
          30 May 2007, p. E1.

Weiller, K. H. Review of Sport, Rhetoric, and Gender: Historical Perspectives and Media
          Representations, edited by Linda K. Fuller. Choice, Apr. 2007, p. 1377.

General Notes:

  • MLA uses the phrase, “Accessed” to denote which date you accessed the web page when available or necessary. It is not required to do so but especially encouraged when there is no copyright date listed on a website.
  • Include a URL or web address to help readers locate your sources. Because web addresses are not static (i.e., they change often) and because documents sometimes appear in multiple places on the web (e.g., on multiple databases), MLA encourages the use of citing containers such as Youtube, JSTOR, Spotify, or Netflix in order to easily access and verify sources.
  • However, MLA only requires the www. address, so eliminate all https:// when citing URLs.
  • Many scholarly journal articles found in databases include a DOI (digital object identifier). If a DOI is available, cite the DOI number instead of the URL.
  • Online newspapers and magazines sometimes include a “permalink,” which is a shortened, stable version of a URL. Look for a “share” or “cite this” button to see if a source includes a permalink. If you can find a permalink, use that instead of a URL.
  • If page numbers are not available, use par. or pars. to denote paragraph numbers. Use these in place of the p. or pp. abbreviation.
Entire website

NOTES: When using the URL, be sure to include the complete address for the site except for the https://.

Editor, author, or compiler name (if available). Name of Site. Version number, Name of institution/organization affiliated with the site (sponsor or publisher), date of resource creation (if available), URL, DOI or permalink. Date of access (if applicable).

The Purdue OWL Family of Sites. The Writing Lab and OWL at Purdue and Purdue U, 2008,
 Accessed 23 Apr. 2008.

Felluga, Dino. Guide to Literary and Critical Theory. Purdue U, 28 Nov. 2003,
 Accessed 10 May 2006.


Course and Department Website

NOTES: Give the instructor name. Then list the title of the course (or the school catalog designation for the course) in italics. Give appropriate department and school names as well, following the course title.

Felluga, Dino. Survey of the Literature of England. Purdue U, Aug. 2006,
 Accessed 31 May 2007.

English Department. Purdue U, 20 Apr. 2009,

Page on a website

NOTES: For an individual page on a Web site, list the author or alias if known, followed by an indication of the specific page or article being referenced. Usually, the title of the page or article appears in a header at the top of the page. Follow this with the information covered above for entire Web sites. If the publisher is the same as the website name, only list it once.

“Athlete's Foot - Topic Overview.” WebMD, 25 Sept. 2014,

Lundman, Susan. “How to Make Vegetarian Chili.” eHow, www.ehow.
          com/how_10727_make-vegetarian-chili.html. Accessed 6 July 2015.

An Image (Including a Painting, Sculpture, or Photograph)

NOTES: Provide the artist's name, the work of art italicized, the date of creation, the institution and city where the work is housed. Follow this initial entry with the name of the Website in italics, and the date of access.

Goya, Francisco. The Family of Charles IV. 1800. Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid. Museo
          Nacional del Prado
​          of-carlos-iv/f47898fc-aa1c-48f6-a779-71759e417e74. Accessed 22 May 2006.

Klee, Paul. Twittering Machine. 1922. Museum of Modern Art, New York. The Artchive,
 Accessed May

If the work is cited on the web only, then provide the name of the artist, the title of the work, and then follow the citation format for a website. If the work is posted via a username, use that username for the author.

Adams, Clifton R. “People Relax Beside a Swimming Pool at a Country Estate Near
          Phoenix, Arizona, 1928.” Found, National Geographic Creative, 2 June 2016,


Web magazine article

NOTES: Provide the author name, article name in quotation marks, title of the web magazine in italics, publisher name, publication date, URL, and the date of access.

Bernstein, Mark. “10 Tips on Writing the Living Web.” A List Apart: For People Who Make
, 16 Aug. 2002, Accessed 4 May 2009.



Article in an Online Scholarly Journal

NOTES: For all online scholarly journals, provide the author(s) name(s), the name of the article in quotation marks, the title of the publication in italics, all volume and issue numbers, and the year of publication. Include a URL, DOI, or permalink to help readers locate the source.

Article in an Online-only Scholarly Journal

MLA requires a page range for articles that appear in Scholarly Journals. If the journal you are citing appears exclusively in an online format (i.e. there is no corresponding print publication) that does not make use of page numbers, indicate the URL or other location information.

Dolby, Nadine. “Research in Youth Culture and Policy: Current Conditions and Future
          Directions.” Social Work and Society: The International Online-Only Journal, vol. 6,
          no. 2, 2008, Accessed 20 May 2009.

Article in an Online Scholarly Journal That Also Appears in Print

Cite articles in online scholarly journals that also appear in print as you would a scholarly journal in print, including the page range of the article. Provide the URL and the date of access.

Wheelis, Mark. “Investigating Disease Outbreaks Under a Protocol to the Biological and
          Toxin Weapons Convention.” Emerging Infectious Diseases, vol. 6, no. 6, 2000, pp.
          595-600, Accessed 8 Feb. 2009.



Article from an Online Database (or Other Electronic Subscription Service)

NOTES: Cite online databases (e.g. LexisNexis, ProQuest, JSTOR, ScienceDirect) and other subscription services as containers. Provide the title of the database italicized before the DOI or URL. If a DOI is not provided, use the URL instead. Provide the date of access if you wish.

Alonso, Alvaro, and Julio A. Camargo. “Toxicity of Nitrite to Three Species of Freshwater
          Invertebrates.” Environmental Toxicology, vol. 21, no. 1, 3 Feb. 2006, pp. 90-94.
          Wiley Online Library, doi:10.1002/tox.20155.

Langhamer, Claire. “Love and Courtship in Mid-Twentieth-Century England.” Historical
vol. 50, no. 1, 2007, pp. 173-96. ProQuest,
          doi:10.1017/S0018246X06005966. Accessed 27 May 2009.


YouTube video

NOTES: Video and audio sources need to be documented using the same basic guidelines for citing print sources in MLA style. Include as much descriptive information as necessary to help readers understand the type and nature of the source you are citing. If the author’s name is the same as the uploader, only cite the author once. If the author is different from the uploader, cite the author’s name before the title.

“8 Hot Dog Gadgets put to the Test.” YouTube, uploaded by Crazy Russian Hacker, 6 June

McGonigal, Jane. “Gaming and Productivity.” YouTube, uploaded by Big Think, 3 July 2012,

General Notes:

  • Several sources have multiple means for citation, especially those that appear in varied formats: films, DVDs, T.V shows, music, published and unpublished interviews, interviews over e-mail; published and unpublished conference proceedings.
  • The following section groups these sorts of citations as well as others not covered in the print, periodical, and electronic sources sections.

TV or Radio Broadcast

Recorded Television Episodes

NOTES: Begin with the episode name in quotation marks. Follow with the series name in italics. When the title of the collection of recordings is different than the original series (e.g., the show Friends is in DVD release under the title Friends: The Complete Sixth Season), list the title that would help researchers to locate the recording. Give the distributor name followed by the date of distribution.

"The One Where Chandler Can't Cry." Friends: The Complete Sixth Season, written by
          Andrew Reich and Ted Cohen, directed by Kevin Bright, Warner Brothers, 2004.

Broadcast TV or Radio Program

Begin with the title of the episode in quotation marks. Provide the name of the series or program in italics. Also include the network name, call letters of the station followed by the date of broadcast and city.

"The Blessing Way." The X-Files. Fox, WXIA, Atlanta, 19 Jul. 1998.

Netflix, Hulu, Google Play

Generally, when citing a specific episode, follow the format below.

“94 Meetings.” Parks and Recreation, season 2, episode 21, NBC, 29 Apr. 2010. Netflix,

An Entire TV Series

When citing the entire series of a TV show, use the following format.

Daniels, Greg and Michael Schur, creators. Parks and Recreation. Deedle-Dee
          Productions and Universal Media Studios, 2015.

A Song or Album

NOTES: Citations begin with the artist name. They might also be listed by composers or performers. Otherwise, list composer and performer information after the album title. Put individual song titles in quotation marks. Album names are italicized. Provide the name of the recording manufacturer followed by the publication date.


Rae Morris. “Skin.” Cold, Atlantic Records, 2014. Spotify,

Online Album

Beyoncé. “Pray You Catch Me.” Lemonade, Parkwood Entertainment, 2016,


Nirvana. "Smells Like Teen Spirit." Nevermind, Geffen, 1991.


Films or Movies

NOTES: List films by their title. Include the name of the director, the film studio or distributor, and the release year. If relevant, list performer names after the director's name.

The Usual Suspects. Directed by Bryan Singer, performances by Kevin Spacey, Gabriel
          Byrne, Chazz Palminteri, Stephen Baldwin, and Benicio del Toro, Polygram, 1995.

To emphasize specific performers or directors, begin the citation with the name of the desired performer or director, followed by the appropriate title for that person.

Lucas, George, director. Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope. Twentieth Century Fox, 1977.

4 Interview

Personal Interviews

NOTES: Personal interviews refer to those interviews that you conduct yourself. List the interview by the name of the interviewee. Include the descriptor Personal interview and the date of the interview.

Smith, Jane. Personal interview. 19 May 2014.

Published Interviews (Print or Broadcast)

NOTES: List the interview by the full name of the interviewee. If the name of the interview is part of a larger work like a book, a television program, or a film series, place the title of the interview in quotation marks. Place the title of the larger work in italics. If the interview appears as an independent title, italicize it. For books, include the author or editor name after the book title.

If the interview from which you quote does not feature a title, add the descriptor, Interview by (unformatted) after the interviewee’s name and before the interviewer’s name.

Gaitskill, Mary. Interview with Charles Bock. Mississippi Review, vol. 27, no. 3, 1999,
          pp. 129-50.

Amis, Kingsley. “Mimic and Moralist.” Interviews with Britain’s Angry Young Men,
          By Dale Salwak, Borgo P, 1984.

Online-only Published Interviews

NOTES: List the interview by the name of the interviewee. If the interview has a title, place it in quotation marks. Cite the remainder of the entry as you would other exclusive web content. Place the name of the website in italics, give the publisher name (or sponsor), the publication date, and the URL.

If the interview from which you quote does not feature a title, add the descriptor Interview by (unformatted) after the interviewee’s name and before the interviewer’s name.

Zinkievich, Craig. Interview by Gareth Von Kallenbach. Skewed & Reviewed, 27 Apr.
         skewed-%2526-reviewed-interviews-craig. Accessed 15 May. 2009.


Digital Files (PDFs, MP3s, JPEGs)

NOTES: Determine the type of work to cite (e.g., article, image, sound recording) and cite appropriately. End the entry with the name of the digital format (e.g., PDF, JPEG file, Microsoft Word file, MP3). If the work does not follow traditional parameters for citation, give the author’s name, the name of the work, the date of creation, and the location.

Beethoven, Ludwig van. Moonlight Sonata. Crownstar, 2006.

Smith, George. “Pax Americana: Strife in a Time of Peace.” 2005. Microsoft Word file.

Council of Writing Program Administrators, National Council of Teachers of English, and
          National Writing Project. Framework for Success in Postsecondary Writing. CWPA,
          NCTE, and NWP, 2011,

Bentley, Phyllis. “Yorkshire and the Novelist.” The Kenyon Review, vol. 30, no. 4, 1968, pp.
          509-22. JSTOR,


Speeches, Lectures, or Other Oral Presentations (including Conference Presentations)

NOTES: Provide the speaker’s name. Then, give the title of the speech (if any) in quotation marks. Follow with the title of the particular conference or meeting and then the name of the organization. Name the venue and its city (if the name of the city is not listed in the venue’s name). Use the descriptor that appropriately expresses the type of presentation (e.g., Address, Lecture, Reading, Keynote Speech, Guest Lecture, Conference Presentation).

Stein, Bob. “Reading and Writing in the Digital Era.” Discovering Digital Dimensions,
          Computers and Writing Conference, 23 May 2003, Union Club Hotel, West
          Lafayette, IN. Keynote Address.


Published Conference Proceedings​

NOTES: Cite published conference proceedings like a book. If the date and location of the conference are not part of the published title, add this information after the published proceedings title.

Last Name, First Name, editor. Conference Title that Includes Conference Date and
, Publisher, Date of Publication.

Last Name, First Name, editor. Conference Title that Does Not Include Conference
         Date and Location
, Conference Date, Conference Location, Publisher, Date of

To cite a presentation from a published conference proceedings, begin with the presenter’s name. Place the name of the presentation in quotation marks. Follow with publication information for the conference proceedings.

Last Name, First Name. “Conference Paper Title.” Conference Title that Includes
          Conference Date and Location
, edited by Conference Editor(s), Publisher,
          Date of Publication.


Legal Source


  • Do not italicize or close in quotation marks the titles of the laws, acts, and similar documents.
  • Titles are usually abbreviated and the works are cited by sections.
  • The years are added if relevant. 
  • State the number of the act, its Public Law number, its Statutes at Large volume number and inclusive page numbers, date it was enacted, and medium of publication. 


Aviation and Transportation Security Act. Pub. L. 107-71. 115 Stat.
          597-647. 19 Nov. 2001. 

9 A Painting, Sculpture, or Photograph

NOTES: Provide the artist's name, the title of the artwork in italics, and the date of composition. Finally, provide the name of the institution that houses the artwork followed by the location of the institution (if the location is not listed in the name of the institution, e.g. The Art Institute of Chicago).

Goya, Francisco. The Family of Charles IV. 1800, Museo del Prado, Madrid.

If the medium and/or materials (e.g., oil on canvas) are important to the reference, you can include this information at the end of the entry. However, it is not required.

For photographic reproductions of artwork (e.g. images of artwork in a book), treat the book or website as a container. Remember that for a second container, the title is listed first, before the contributors. Cite the bibliographic information as above followed by the information for the source in which the photograph appears, including page or reference numbers (plate, figure, etc.).

Goya, Francisco. The Family of Charles IV. 1800, Museo del Prado, Madrid. Gardener's
          Art Through the Ages
, 10th ed., by Richard G. Tansey and Fred S. Kleiner, Harcourt
          Brace, p. 939.

If you viewed the artwork on the museum's website, treat the name of the website as the container (i.e., the "book"), and include the website's publisher and the URL at the end of the citation. Omit publisher information if it is the same as the name of the website. Note the period after the date below, rather than the comma: this is because the date refers to the painting's orginal creation, rather than to its publication on the website. Thus, MLA format considers it an "optional element."

Goya, Francisco. The Family of Charles IV. 1800. Museo del Prado,

​          iv/f47898fc-aa1c-48f6-a779-71759e417e74.


General Notes (MLA 214-216):

  • Author's last name and page reference are enough to identify the source, i.e. (Anderson 7)
  • Parenthetical references should be kept short. Do not give editorial titles after the name, i.e. ed.
  • If an author's name is in the sentence, the name need not be repeated in parenthetical page citation, i.e.
    • Tannen has argued (178-85).
    • This point has been argued (Tannen 178-85).
  • References in the text must clearly point to specific sources in the list of works cited. If list contains more than 1 author with the same last name, add the first initial or full first name.
  • For works with more than 3 authors, use et al. without any intervening punctuation, i.e. (Lauter et al. 2601-09).
  • Use Corporate name, shortened or in full. 
  • If work is listed by title, use the title. If two or more works have the same title, add a publication date to distinguish one from the other. 
  • Refer here for further guidelines. 


Entire work (including those with no page numbers)

(MLA 219-220)

NOTE: For entire works or works with no pagination and reference markers, the name of the person corresponding to an entry list will do. 


Fukuyama's Our Posthuman Future includes many examples of this trend.

[Works cited]

Fukuyama, Francis. Our Posthuman Future: Consequences of the Biotechnology
 New York: Farrar, 2002.


Part of a work

(MLA 220-221)


Between 1968 and 1988, television coverage of presidential elections changed dramatically (Hallin 5). 

Chan claims that "Eagleton has belittled the gains of postmodernism" (par. 41)

[Works cited]

Chan, Evans. "Postmodernism and Hong Kong Cinema." Postmodern Culture, vol. 
          10, no. 3, 2000. Project Muse. Accessed 20 May 2002.

Hallin, Daniel C. "Sound Bite News: Television Coverage of Elections, 1968-1988."
          Journal of Communication, vol. 42, no. 2, 1992, pp.5-24. 


Volume and page numbers of a multi-volume work

(MLA 222-223)


Between 1945 and 1972, the political party system in the US underwent profound changes (Schlesinger, vol. 4). 

[Works cited]

Schlesinger, Arthur M., Jr., gen. ed. History of US Political Parties. 4 vols.
          New York: Chelsea, 1973. 


Work listed by title

(MLA 223-224)

NOTE: Full or shortened version of the title in quotation marks precedes the page, paragraph, section, or reference numbers if any. 


International espionage was as prevalent as ever in the 1990s ("Decade"). 

[Works cited]

"Decade of the Spy." Newsweek, 7 Mar, 1994, pp. 26-27. 


Work by a Corporate Author

(MLA 224)

NOTE: Use Corporate Author's name followed by a page reference number. 


In 1963 the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa predicted that Africa would evolve into an advanced industrial economy within fifty years (1-2, 4-6). 

[Works cited]

United Nations. Economic Commission for Africa. Industrial Growth in Africa.
          New York: United Nations, 1963. 


Two or more works by the same author or authors

(MLA 225)

NOTE: Put author's last name, work title in italics page numbers.


(Frye, Double Vision 85). 

[Works cited]

Frye, Northrop. Anatomy of Criticism: Four Essays. Princeton:
          Princeton UP, 1957. 

---. The Double Vision: Language and Meaning in Religion.
          Toronto: U of Toronto P, 1991.

If author's name and work title are given in text, no need to repeat these in parenthetical references. Retain only the page number(s). 


Common literature

(MLA 226-228)

NOTES: For commonly studied prose available in several editions, provide more information other than just page numbers. 

Give the page number(s) first followed by a semicolon and other identifying information using appropriate abbreviations, i.e. "(130; ch. 9)".

When citing an unpaginated source, chapter number or similar designation may be the only identifying information, i.e. "(ch. 1)". 

For commonly studied plays and poems, cite by division and line. Omit page numbers altogether, i.e. "Iliad 9.19" refers to Book 9 Line 19 of Homer's Iliad.

When citing scripture, provide an entry in the works cited for the edition consulted.

General terms like Bible and Koran are not italicised. Give the name of the book, chapter, and verse number rather than page number. Book titles are often abbreviated, i.e. (1 Chron. 21.8). 


More than one work in a single parenthetical reference

(MLA 229)

NOTE: Cite works normally as you should and use semicolons to separate the citations, i.e.


(Fukuyama 42; McRae 101-33)

(Natl. Research Council 25-35; "U.S's Paulson)

(Guidelines; Hallin 18-24)

Use of notes with parenthetical documentation

(MLA 230-232)

Content notes offer the reader comment, explanation, or information that text cannot accommodate, i.e. 


1. In this paper, I follow the definition of metonymy as a figure of contiguity. For a more exhaustive definition of the term, see Martin.

[Works cited]

Martin, Wallace. "Metonymy." The New Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics.
           Ed. Alex Preminger and T.V.F. Brogan. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1993, Literature
. Accessed 26 Mar. 2008.

  • Bibliographic notes contain either several sources or evaluative comments on sources, i.e.


1. For strong points of view on different aspects of the issue, see Public Agenda Foundation 1-10 and Sakala 151-88.

[Works cited]

Public Agenda Foundation. The Health Care Crisis: Containing Costs, Expanding Coverage.
          New York: McGraw, 1992.

Sakala, Carol. "Maternity Care Policy in the United States: Toward a More Rational and
          Effective System." Diss. Boston U, 1993.

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