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Citing Resources: Harvard

General Note: 

Put specific page numbers used in the reference list (Pears and Shields, 2016). 


Printed books


Author. (Publication Year) Title. Edition (other than 1st ed). Place of Publication: Publisher.

Bell, J. (2010) Doing your research project. 5th edn. Maidenhead: Open University Press.

Book with 2 or 3 authors
Goddard, J. and Barrett, S. (2007) The health needs of young people leaving care. Norwich: University of East Anglia, School of Social Work and Psychological Studies.

Book with than 3 authors


Young, H. D., Freeman, R.A. Sandin, T. and Ford, A. (2005) Sears and Zemansky's university physics. 10th edn. San Francisco: Addison-Wesley.


Book with an editor

Prest, W. (ed.) (1987) The professions in early modern England. London: Croom Helm.

Book with author(s) and editor(s)

Caroline, N. L. (2007) Nancy Caroline's emergency care in the streets. 6th edn. Edited by A. Pollak, B. Fellows and M. Woolcock. Sudbury, Mass.: Jones and Barlett.

Book with no author

Treasures of Britain and treasures of Ireland (1990). London: Reader's Digest Association Ltd.



Hremaik, A. and Hudson, T. (2011) Understanding learning and teaching in secondary schools. Harlow: Pearson Longman.

NOTES: When an eBook looks like a printed book with publication details and pagination, reference it as a printed book. Otherwise, include URL and date of download using the below format:

Adams, D. (1979) The hitchhiker's guide to the galaxy. Available at: (Downloaded: 29 January 2013).



Cunningham, A. (2007) The making of modern medicine. Available at: (Downloaded 18 March 2013).

Reprint editions


NOTE: Give the original reference format for books along with publication facts of the reprint as below: 

Author. (Year of original publication) Title. Reprint, Place of reprint publication: Year of reprint.

David, M. (1968) Towards honesty in public relations. Reprint, London: B.Y. Jove, 1990.

Translated books

Silone, I. (1994) Fontamara. Translated by G. David and

E. MosbacherLondon: Redwords.


Chapters/sections of edited books 


Franklin, A. W. (2012) 'Management of the problem', in Smith, S. M. (ed.) The maltreatment of children. Lancaster: MTP, pp. 83-95.


Multi-volume works


Butcher, R. (1961) A new British flora (2 vols). London: Leonard Hill. 

a. Multi-volume works

NOTE: When citing a single volume of a multi-volume work, add the title of the relevant volume to your reference list. 

Butcher, R. (1961) A new British flora. Part 1. Iycopodiaceae to salicaceae. London: Leonard Hill. 

b. Chapters in multi-volume works

Jackson, G. (2000) 'Ports 1700-1840', in Clark, P. (ed.) Cambridge urban history of Britain: Vol. 2 1540-1840. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 705-731.


Reference books


NOTE: These materials (encyclopedia, dictionaries, bibliographies) often do not have no obvious author or editor. 

Collins beginner's German dictionary (2008) New York: Collins. 


Online reference books


NOTE: For printed book made available online, citation is similar to a printed book:

Rose, M. R. (2007) 'Adaptation', in Levin, S. A. (ed.) Encyclopedia of biodiversity, pp. 17-23.

For updated online version, replace publication details with URL and access date.

Badash, L. (2008) 'Rutherford, Ernest, Baron Rutherford of Nelson (1871-1937)', in Oxford dictionary of national biography (2004). Available at: (Accessed: 25 January 1983).


Sacred Texts


NOTE: Publisher and publication date are not required. 

Citation order should be as follows: 

a. Bible

Matthew 5: 3-12, Holy Bible. New International Edition.

b. Torah

Torah. Shemot 3:14.

c. Qur'an

Qur'an 20:26 (2010) Translated by Abdel Haleem, M.A.S. Oxford: Oxford University Press.


Journal articles -

Print and Electronic


Author (Surname followed by initials). (Year of publication). 'Title of article', Title of journal (Capitalise first letter of each word except linking words). (Vol. No.) Issue No., pp. 

Brandon, VK. 2001. 'Information seeking tactics'. Search Strategy Journal, 9(3), pp.12-18.

Norrie, C., Hammond, J., D'Avray, L., Collington, V., and Fook, J. (2012) 'Doing it differently? A review of literature on teaching reflective practice across health and social care professions', Reflective Practice, 13(4), pp. 565-578.

with DOI

Shirazi, T. (2010) 'Successful teaching placements in secondary schools: Achieving QTS practical handbooks', European Journal of Teacher Education, 33(3), pp. 323-326. doi: 10.1080/02619761003602246.


Newspaper articles


NOTE: Database title is not required if article was accessed through password-protected institutional repositories. 

Author/Byline (Year of publication) 'Title of article', Title of Newspaper (Edition if required), Day and Month, pp. 

Old, D.  (2012) 'House price gloom', Evening Chronicle (Newcastle edn), 26 June, p. 25.

Yuen, S. (2012) 'Setting roots in NParks', The New Paper,13 August, p. 16.


If the author is unknown:

The Times (2012) 'Bank of accounts', 14 June, p. 7.


For online version of the article:

Roberts, D. and Ackerman, S. (2013) US draft resolution allows Obama 90 days for military action against Syria. Available at 2013/sep/04/syria-strikes-draft-resolutions-90-days (Accessed: 9 September 2013).


Magazine articles


Bletcher, K. (2012) 'Matters of the heart', Heart Matters (August/September), pp. 9-11.


Full conference proceedings


Author/Editor (Year of publication) Title of conference: subtitle. Location, Date of conference. Place of publication: Publisher.

Institute for Small Business Affairs (2000) Small firms: adding the spark: The 23rd ISBA national small firms policy and research conference. Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen, 15-17 November. Leeds: Institute for Small Business Affairs. 


Individual conference papers


Author (Year of publication) 'Title of paper', Title of conference: subtitle. Location, Date of conference. Place of publication: Publisher. Page references of the paper.

Cook, D. (2000) 'Developing franchised business in Scotland', Small firms: adding the spark: The 23rd ISBA national small firms policy and research conference. Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen, 15-14 November. Leeds: Institute for Small Business Affairs, pp. 127-136.


Papers from conference proceedings published on the internet


Author (Year of publication) 'Title of paper', Title of conference: subtitle, Location, Date of conference. Place of publication: Publisher. Available at: URL (or DOI if available). (Accessed: date) (not required when DOI is used)

Mendes, L. and Romao, T. (2011) 'Children as teachers', Proceedings of the 8th international conference on advances in computer entertainment technology, Lisbon, Portugal, 8-11 November. doi: 10.1145/2071423.2071438.



  • Unpublished information are those not in the public domain.




Author (Year of submission) Title of thesis. Degree statement. Degree-awarding body. Available at: URL (Access date: Day Month Year).

NOTE: Provide only URL and access date if viewed online.

Parsons, J. D. (2011) Black holes with a twist. PhD thesis. Durham University. Available at: http.// (Accessed: 14 August 2012).

Tregear, A. E. J. (2001) Specialty regional foods in the UK: an investigation from the perspectives of marketing and social history. Unpublished PhD thesis. Newcastle University.


Tutors' handouts


Tutor (Year of distribution) 'Title of handout', Module Code: Module Title. Institution. Unpublished.

Hadley, S. (2013) 'Biomechanics: introductory readings', BM289: Sport biomechanics. University of Cumbria. Unpublished.


Internal reports


Author/Organisation (Year) Title of report. Internal report (including name of institution). Unpublished.

Harris, G. (2013) Focus group recommendations. Internal LGU report. Unpublished.


  • Personal learning environments are often known as 'eportfolios' or 'webfolios'.
  • The generally include a collection of electronic information (coursework, images, multimedia, hyperlinks and other electronic files) demonstrating the students' learning records and evidence of achievements. 
  • In eportfolios, a multitude of different types of information may be referenced. But the reference will always relate to the web page of the user's work. 

Tutors' lecture notes


Author or Tutor (Year of publication) 'Title of item'. Module Code: Module Title. Available at: URL (Access date: Day Month Year).

Hollis, K. (2008) 'Week 7: dissertation preparation materials'. HIST4271: Research methods for MA History. Available at: (Accessed: 21 June 2012).


PowerPoint presentations


Author or Tutor (Year of publication) 'Title of item' [PowerPoint Presentation]. Module Code: Module Title. Available at: URL (Access date: Day Month Year).

Booth, L. (2011) 'History of radiography' [PowerPoint Presentation]. MISR4004: Patient care skills. an introduction to human sciences. Available at: (Accessed: 7 August 2012). 


Learning support materials


Author or Tutor (Year of publication) 'Title of item', Title of support/skills module:  subtitle. Available at: URL (Access date: Day Month Year).

University of Cumbria, Library and Student Services (2012) 'Skills evaluation tools',
Skills@cumbria: assess your skills. Available at: (Accessed: 18 July 2012).


  • When referencing information from the Internet, distinguish what you are referring to (i.e. journal articles, organisation sites, government publications, etc.)
  • Note the access date as web materials are regularly updated or changed. 
  • Remember to evaluate accuracy, authority, currency, coverage, and objectivity when citing online sources.
  • The defining element in referencing a web page is its URL (Uniform Resource Locator). This should be included in the reference list but do not include this in the in-text citation.

Web pages with individual authors


Author. (Year of last update) Title of web page. Publisher (if availabe) Available at: URL (Access date: Day Month Year).

Burton, P.A. (2012) Castles of Spain. Available at: (Accessed: 14 October 2012). 

Web pages with organisations as authors
National Health Service (2012) Check your symptoms. Available at: (Accessed: 17 October 2012).

Web pages with no authors

Palladio's Italian villas (2005) Available at: (Accessed: 23 August 2012).




NOTE: Blogs may not be objective. Use them in conjunction with reputable sources. Further, due to the informality of the Internet, many authors give their first names of aliases. 
Author. (Year of last update) 'Title of message', Title of Internet Site, Day Month of posting. Available at: URL (Access date: Day Month Year).
Robinson, N. (2012) 'Cameron Direct', Nick Robinson's newslog, 4 June. Available at: (Accessed: 11 October 2012). 




'Title of article' (Year of last update) Available at: URL (Access date: Day Month Year).

'Thomas Telford' (2012) Available at: (Accessed: 11 September 2012).

General Reference Format 

Author or organisation (Year of Publication) Title of report. Place of publication: Publisher.

  • Provide URL and access date in place of publication details if accessed from the Internet. 

Research reports


Bradshaw, J., Middleton, S., Davis, A., Oldfield, N., Smith, N., Cusworth, L. and Williams, J. (2008) A minimum income standard for Britain: what people think. Available at: (Accessed: 3 July 2012).

2 Company annual reports
BskyB Ltd. (2011) Annual report 2011. Available at: (Accessed: 8 January 2013).

Market research reports from online databases

Mintel Oxygen (2011) 'Car insurance UK'. Available at: (Accessed: 5 January 2013).


Financial reports from online databases

Bureau van Dijk (2012) 'BT Group plc company report'. Available at: (Accessed: 5 January 2013).




Inventor(s) (Year of publication) Title. Authorising organisation Patent Number. Available at: URL (Access: date).

Padley, S. (2012) Radiator isolating valve. UK Intellectual Property Office Patent No. GB2463069. Available at: (Accessed: 24 August 2012).

2 Scientific datasets

Author(s) (Year of publication) 'Title of data'. Available at: URL (Access: date).

Ralchenko, Y., Kramida, A.E., Reader, J., and NIST ASD Team (2009) 'Na levels holdings'. Available at: (Accessed: 2 August 2012). 


Mathematical equations


Author(s) (Year of publication) 'Title of article', Title of Journal. Volume No. (Issue No.), pp. doi.

Fradelizi, M. and Meyer, M. (2008). 'Some functional inverse Santalo inequalities', Advances in Mathematics, 218(5), pp. 1430-1452. doi: 10.1016/j.aim.2008.03.013.




Author (Year of publication) Title of book. Place of publication: Publisher, page number or figure number of graph, graph.

Day, R. and Gastel, B. (2006) How to write and publish a scientific paper. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 95, graph. 


Prints or slides


Photographer (Year) Title of photograph [Photograph]. Place of Publication: publisher.

Thomas, T. (2013) Redevelopment in Newcastle [Photograph]. Newcastle upon Tyne: Then & Now Publishing. 


Photographs from the net


Photographer (Year) Title of photograph Available at: URL (Access: date).

Kitto, J. (2008) Golden sunset. Available at: (Accessed: 14 June 2012).


Medical Images 


Image title (Year) [Medium]. Available at: URL (Accessed: date).

The spine (2013) [X-ray and MRI scan]. Available at: (Accessed: 28 July 2013). 


Book illustrations, figures, diagrams, logos


Author (Year) Title of book. Place of publication: Publisher, pp., illus./fig./diagram/logo/table
Strong, R. (1990) Lost treasures of Britain. London: Viking, pp. 62-63, illus.
If seen online, add medium in square brackets:
London2012 (2010) London2012 [Logo]. Available at: (Accessed: 23 May 2012).


Audio/video downloads 

Author/singer/artist (if available; if not use title first) (Year of distribution) Title of recording/video [Type of material]. Available at: URL (Download: date).

The Civil Wars (2012) Barton Hollow [Recording]. Available at: civil-wars (Downloaded: 5 August 2012). 


TV programmes viewed on the Internet


'Title of the episode' (if known, if not - use title of the programme) (Year of broadcast) Title of programme/series, Series and episode numbers. Name of channel, Broadcast date. Available at: URL (Accessed: date). 

'Tenby' (2011) Grand Designs, Series 7, episode 30, Channel 4 Television, 28 September. Available at: http://www/ (Accessed: 15 January 2012). 




a. Films and movies

Title of Film (Year of Distribution) Directed by [Film]. Place of distribution: distribution company

Fahrenheit 9/11 (2004) Directed by Michael Moore [Film]. Santa Monica, Calif: Lions Gate Films

b. Films on DVD/Blu-ray

Title of Film (Year of Distribution) Directed by [DVD] or [Blu-ray]. Place of distribution: distribution company

The Matrix reloaded (2003) Directed by A. & L. Wachowski [DVD]. Los Angeles: Warner Brothers Inc.


Films on YouTube


Name of person posting video (Year video posted) Title of film [YouTube video]. Available at URL. (Accessed: date)

Leponline (2008) Ask the experts - plastering a wall [YouTube video]. Available at: (Accessed: 13 January 2012).



Author/presenter (Year site was last updated) Title of podcasts [Podcast]. Day month of posting. Available at: URL (Accessed: date)

Oracle Business Sense (2013) Structure [Podcast]. 12 June. Available at: (Accessed: 27 June 2013).

General Notes:


Author name mentioned in text

One author
According to Bell (2010, p. 23), the most important part of...

Two authors
Goddard and Barrett (2007) suggested...

Three or more authors
This was proved by Young et al. (2005)...


Author name not mentioned in text

One author
In analysing ports (Jackson, 2000)

Two authors
The process of adaptation (Rose and Lim, 2007, p. 19)...

Three or more authors
Literature says (Norrie et al., 2012)...


Corporate author

The conference (Institute for Small Business Affairs, 2000)...


Works with no author

The article (The Times, 2012, p. 7)...
The definition (Collins beginner's German dictionary, 2008, p. 21)...

5 Sacred Texts

The Beatitudes (Matthew 5:3-12)...

The reply (Shemot 3:14) is the...

'And ease for me my task' (Qur'an 20: 26)

Book References

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