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Citing Resources: IEEE

Basic Format for Print:

[1] J. K. Author, “Title of chapter in the book,” in Title of Published Book, xth ed. City of
      Publisher, (only U.S. State), Country
: Abbrev. of Publisher, year, ch. x, sec. x, pp. xxx–xxx. 


Basic Format for Online:

[1] J. K. Author, “Title of chapter in the book,” in Title of Published Book, xth ed. City of Publisher, State, Country: Abbrev. of Publisher,
      year, ch. x, sec. x, pp. xxx–xxx. [Online]. Available: (Accessed on: Access date).


1 Book  [1] B. Klaus and P. Horn, Robot Vision. Cambridge, MA, USA: MIT Press, 1986.
Book chapter in an edited book

[2] L. Stein, “Random patterns,” in Computers and You, J. S. Brake, Ed. New York,
     NY, USA: Wiley, 1994, pp. 55-70. 

[3] A. Histace, “Image restoration—Recent advances and applications,” in Super-
     Resolution Restoration and Image Reconstruction for Passive Millimeter Wave
. Rijeka, Croatia: InTech, 2012, pp. 25–45. 

3 Edited book

[4] M. Abramowitz and I. A. Stegun, Eds., Handbook of Mathematical Functions
     (Applied Mathematics Series 55). Washington, DC, USA: NBS, 1964, pp. 32-

[5] E. F. Moore, “Gedanken-experiments on sequential machines,” in Automata
(Ann. of Math. 
Studies, no. 1), C. E. Shannon and J. McCarthy, Eds.
     Princeton, NJ, USA: Princeton Univ.
 Press, 1965, pp. 129-153. 

4 Book with corporate author [6] Westinghouse Electric Corporation (Staff of Technology and Science, Aerospace
     Div.), Integrated Electronic Systems. Englewood Cliffs, NJ, USA: Prentice-Hall,
Translated book
[7] M. Gorkii, “Optimal design,” Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR, vol. 12, pp. 111-122,
     1961 (Transl.: in L. Pontryagin, Ed., The Mathematical Theory of Optimal
New York, NY, USA: Interscience, 1
962, ch. 2, sec. 3, pp. 127-
6 eBook [8] G. O. Young, “Synthetic structure of industrial plastics,” in Plastics, vol. 3,
     Polymers of Hexadromicon, J. Peters, Ed., 2nd ed. New York, NY, USA: McGraw-
     Hill, 1964, pp. 15-64. [Online]. Available: (Accessed
     on: Sep 1, 2010).
7 Edited eBook

[9] Philip B. Kurland and Ralph Lerner, eds., The Founders’ Constitution. Chicago,
     IL, USA: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1987. [Online]. Available: http://press- (Accessed on: Feb. 28, 2010).

8 eBook by a Corporate Author [10] The Terahertz Wave eBook. ZOmega Terahertz Corp., 2014. [Online].
       (Accessed on: May 19, 2014).

Basic Format for Print:

[1] J. K. Author, “Name of paper,” Abbrev. Title of Periodical, vol. x, no. x, pp. xxx-xxx, Abbrev. Month, year. 


Basic Format for Online:

[1] J. K. Author, “Name of paper,” Abbrev. Title of Periodical, vol. x, no. x, pp. xxx-xxx, Abbrev. Month, year. doi: 10.1109.XXX.123456,
      [Online]. Available: site/path/file (
Accessed on: Month Day, Year)


Single author

[1] J. U. Buncombe, “Infrared navigation—Part I: Theory,” IEEE Trans. Aerosp.
     Electron. Syst.
, vol. AES-4, no. 3, pp. 352–377, Sep. 1944. 

[2] F. Aronowitz, “Theory of traveling-wave optical maser,” Phys. Rev., vol. 134,
     pp. A635–A646, Dec. 8, 1965. 

[3] Ye. V. Lavrova, “Geographic distribution of ionospheric disturbances in the F2
     layer,” Tr. IZMIRAN, vol. 19, no. 29, pp. 31–43, 1961 (Transl.: E. R. Hope,
     Directorate of Scientific Information Services, Defence Research Board of
     Canada, Rep. T384R, Apr. 1963).

[4] E. P. Wigner, “On a modification of the Rayleigh–Schrodinger perturbation
     theory,” (in German), Math. Naturwiss. Anz. Ungar. Akad. Wiss., vol. 53, p.
     475, 1935. 

2 authors
[5] J. Zhang and N. Tansu, “Optical gain and laser characteristics of InGaN
     quantum wells on ternary InGaN substrates,” IEEE Photon. J., vol. 5, no. 2,
     Apr. 2013, Art no. 2600111.
​3 3-5 authors [6] R. Fardel, M. Nagel, F. Nuesch, T. Lippert, and A. Wokaun, “Fabrication of
     organic light emitting diode pixels by laser-assisted forward transfer,” Appl.
     Phys. Lett.
, vol. 91, no. 6, Aug. 2007, Art. no. 061103.
​4 6 or more authors

[7] M. Ito et al., “Application of amorphous oxide TFT to electrophoretic display,” J.
     Non-Cryst. Solids
, vol. 354, no. 19, pp. 2777–2782, Feb. 2008. 

[8] L. T. Wu et al., “Real-time analytic sensitivity method for transient security
     assessment and prevent control,” Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng., vol. 135, pt. C, pp.
     107-117, Mar. 1988. 

NOTE: Authors may refer to this journal as Proc. IEE, but the abbreviation must be as listed above. Proc. IEE is printed in the U.K. and must not be confused with the Proc. IEEE.

5 Article accepted for publication
[9] E. H. Miller, “A note on reflector arrays,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., to be
NOTE: Always use this style when the paper has been accepted or scheduled for a future publication, i.e., do not use “to appear in.”
6 Article not yet accepted for publication 

[10] C. K. Kim, “Effect of gamma rays on plasma,” submitted for publication. 

NOTE: Always use this style when the paper has not yet been accepted or scheduled for publication, i.e., do not use “to appear in.”

7 ePeriodical with no DOI [11] W. P. Risk, G. S. Kino, and H. J. Shaw, “Fiber-optic frequency shifter using a
       surface acoustic wave incident at an oblique angle,” Opt. Lett., vol. 11, no. 2,
       pp. 115–117, Feb. 1986. [Online]. Available:
       URI=ol-11-2-115 (Accessed on: Dec 3, 2015).
8 ePeriodical with DOI [12] P. Kopyt et al., “Electric properties of graphene-based conductive layers from
       DC up to terahertz range,” IEEE THz Sci. Technol., to be published. doi:
       10.1109/TTHZ.2016.2544142. [Online]. Available: (Accessed on: Feb 5, 2011).

Basic Format for Print:

[1] J. K. Author, “Title of report,” Abbrev. Name of Co., City of Co., Abbrev. State, Country, Rep.
      xxx, year. 


Basic Format for Online:

[1] J. K. Author, “Title of report,” Abbrev. Name of Co., City of Co., Abbrev. State, Country, Rep.
      no., vol./issue, year. [Online]. Available: site/path/file (Accessed on: Access Date).


Note: The general form for citing technical reports is to place the name and location of the company or institution after the author and title and to give the report number and date at the end of the reference. 

Company report
[1] E. E. Reber, R. L. Michell, and C. J. Carter, “Oxygen absorption in the earth’s
     atmosphere,” Aerospace Corp., Los Angeles, CA, USA, Tech. Rep. TR-0200 (4230-
     46)-3, Nov. 1988. 
Technical report from a department

[2] P. Diament, S. L. Richert, and W. L. Lupatkin, “V-line surface-wave radiation and
     scanning,” Dep. Elect. Eng., Columbia Univ., New York, Sci. Rep. 85, Aug. 1991.

3 Report from research lab

[3] J. H. Davis and J. R. Cogdell, “Calibration program for the 16-foot antenna,” Elect.
     Eng. Res. Lab., Univ. Texas, Austin, Tech. Memo. NGL-006-69-3, Nov. 15, 1987.

[4] R. E. Haskell and C. T. Case, “Transient signal propagation in lossless isotropic
     plasmas,” USAF Cambridge Res. Labs., Cambridge, MA, Rep. ARCRL-66-234 (II),
     1994, vol. 2.

[5] M. A. Brusberg and E. N. Clark, “Installation, operation, and data evaluation of an
     oblique-incidence ionosphere sounder system,” in “Radio Propagation Characteristics
     of the Washington–Honolulu Path,” Stanford Res. Inst., Stanford, CA, USA,
     Contract NOBSR-87615, Final Rep., Feb. 1995, vol. 1. 

4 eReports

[6] K. Kagaku. "Multipurpose chest phantom: Lungman." 2002. [Online].
     ph-1_catalog.pdf (Accessed on: Apr. 17, 2014).

[7] S. Urazhdin, N. O. Birge, W. P. Pratt Jr., and J. Bass. "Current-driven magnetic
     excitations in permalloy-based multilayer nanopillars." 2003. [Online].
     Available: arXiv:cond-mat/0303149 (Accessed on: Mar 9, 2014).  

Basic Format:
[1] Name of Manual/Handbook, x ed., Abbrev. Name of Co., City of Co., Abbrev. State, year, pp. xxx-xxx.


1 Examples

[1] Transmission Systems for Communications, 3rd ed., Western Electric Co.,
     Winston-Salem, NC, 1985, pp. 44–60.

[2] Motorola Semiconductor Data Manual, Motorola Semiconductor Products Inc.,
     Phoenix, AZ, 1989.

[3] RCA Receiving Tube Manual, Radio Corp. of America, Electronic Components
     and Devices, Harrison, NJ, Tech. Ser. RC-23, 1992.

Basic Format for Print:
[1] J. K. Author, “Title of paper,” in Abbreviated Name of Conf., (location of conference is optional), year, pp. xxx-xxx.

NOTE: The general form for citing conference proceedings is to list the author and title of the paper, followed by the name (and location, if given) of the conference in italics using standard abbreviations.[1] 


​1 Examples

[1] G. R. Faulhaber, “Design of service systems with priority reservation,” in Conf. Rec.
     1995 IEEE Int. Conf. Commun
., pp. 3–8.

NOTE: If the year is given in the conference title, it may be omitted from the end of the reference as shown here.

[2] S. P. Bingulac, “On the compatibility of adaptive controllers,” in Proc. 4th Annu.
     Allerton Conf. Circuit and Systems Theory
, New York, 1994, pp. 8–16.

[3] W. D. Doyle, “Magnetization reversal in films with biaxial anisotropy,” in 1987 Proc.
     INTERMAG Conf.
, pp. 2.2-1–2.2-6.

[4] C. T. Meadow and D. W. Waugh, “Computer assisted interrogation,” in 1991 Fall Joint
     Computer Conf., Proc. AFIPS Conf
., vol. 29. Washington, DC: Spartan, pp. 381–394.

[5] P. C. Parks, “Lyapunov redesign of model reference adaptive control systems,” in 1993
     Joint Automatic Control Conf.
, Preprints, pp. 485–491.

[6] T. S. Hsia, “System identification,” in IEDM Tech. Dig., 1993, vol. 2, no. 8, pp. 6–13.


[1] IEEE. (2016). IEEE Editorial Style Manual. New Jersey, USA. [Online]. Available: (Accessed on: Oct 24, 2018), p. 36. 

Basic Format for Print:

[1] J. K. Author, “Title of paper,” presented at the abbrev. Name of Conf., City of Conf., Abbrev. State, year. 


Basic Format for Online:

[2] J. K. Author. Title. presented at abbrev. Conference title. [Type of Medium]. Available: site/path/file (Accessed on: Month Day, Year)


​1 Print

[1] J. G. Kreifeldt, “An analysis of surface-detected EMG as an amplitude-
     modulated noise,” presented at the 1989 Int. Conf. Medicine and Biological
     Engineering, Chicago, IL, USA, Nov. 9–12, 1989.

[2] G. W. Juette and L. E. Zeffanella, “Radio noise currents on short sections on
     bundle conductors,” presented at the IEEE Summer Power Meeting, Dallas, TX,
     Jun. 22-27, 1990, Paper 90 SM 690-0 PWRS.

[3] J. Arrillaga and B. Giessner, “Limitation of short-circuit levels by means of
     HVDC links,” presented at the IEEE Summer Power Meeting, Los Angeles, CA,
     Jul. 12–17, 1990, Paper 70 CP 637.

NOTE: Preprints are available before the conference from the IEEE Customer Services Department, at the conference from Paper Sales, and after the conference from ASK*IEEE.

2 Online [4] Process Software Corp., MA. Intranets: Internet technologies deployed behind
     the firewall for corporate productivity. presented at INET’96 Annu. Meeting.
     [Online]. Available: (Accessed on:
     Sep 18, 2016).

Basic Format:
[1] J. K. Author, “Title of thesis,” M.S. thesis, Abbrev. Dept., Abbrev. Univ., City of Univ., Abbrev.
      State, year.

[2] J. K. Author, “Title of dissertation,” Ph.D. dissertation, Abbrev. Dept., Abbrev. Univ., City of
      Univ., Abbrev. State, year.


​1 Examples

[1] J. O. Williams, “Narrow-band analyzer,” Ph.D. dissertation, Dept. Elect. Eng.,
     Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA, 1993.

[2] N. Kawasaki, “Parametric study of thermal and chemical nonequilibrium nozzle
     flow,” M.S. thesis, Dept. Electron. Eng., Osaka Univ., Osaka, Japan, 1993.

[3] N. M. Amer, “The effects of homogeneous magnetic fields on developments of
     tribolium confusum,” Ph.D. dissertation, Radiation Lab., Univ. California,
     Berkeley, Tech. Rep. 16854, 1995.

NOTE: The state abbreviation is omitted if the name of the university includes the state name, i.e., “Univ. California, Berkeley."

[4] C. Becle, These de doctoral d’etat, Univ. Grenoble, Grenoble, France, 1968. 

Basic Format :
[1] J. K. Author, private communication, Abbrev. Month, year.

[2] J. K. Author, “Title of paper,” unpublished. 


1 Examples

[1] A. Harrison, private communication, May 1995.

[2] B. Smith, “An approach to graphs of linear forms,” unpublished.

[3] A. Brahms, “Representation error for real numbers in binary computer
     arithmetic,” IEEE Computer Group Repository, Paper R-67-85. 

Basic Format for Print:

Basic Format: [1] J. K. Author, “Title of patent,” U.S. Patent x xxx xxx, Abbrev. Month, day, year.


Basic Format for Online:
[1] Name of the invention, by inventor’s name. (year, month day). Patent Number [Type of
      medium]. Available: site/path/file (Accessed on: Access Date)



[1] J. P. Wilkinson, “Nonlinear resonant circuit devices,” U.S. Patent 3 624 125, July 16, 1990.

[2] T. Mei and T. Yang, “Circuit and method for average –current regulation of light-emitting
     diodes,” U.S. Patent 7 898 187 B1, 2011, Mar. 1, 2012.

[3] S. P. Voinigescu et al., Direct m-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) operating in
     saturated power mode,” U.S. Patent Appl. 20110013726A1, Jan. 20, 2011.

NOTE: Use “issued date” if several dates are given. 

2 Online [1] Musical toothbrush with adjustable neck and mirror, by L.M.R. Brooks. (1992, May 19).
     Patent D 326 189 [Online]. Available: NEXIS Library: LEXPAT File: DESIGN (Accessed on: Jul 4,


Basic Format:

[1] Title of Standard, Standard number, date. 


1 Examples

[1] IEEE Criteria for Class IE Electric Systems, IEEE Standard 308, 1969.

[2] Letter Symbols for Quantities, ANSI Standard Y10.5-1968. 

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